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Acta Scientiarum 

 

http://www.uem.br/acta 
ISSN printed: 1679-9283 
ISSN on-line: 1807-863X 
Doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v39i3.32850 

 

Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences 

Maringá, v. 39, n. 3, p. 357-372, July-Sept., 2017 

The genus Senna Mill. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) in a 

fragment of the Ecological Station Raso da Catarina, Bahia, Brazil 

Cláudia Letícia de Souza Barros Correia and Adilva de Souza Conceição

 

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade Vegetal, Departamento de Educação, Universidade do Estado da Bahia, Campus VIII, Rua da 
Gangorra, 503, 48608-240, Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brazil. *Author for correspondence. E-mail: adilva.souza@gmail.com 

ABSTRACT. Senna comprises about 300 species with circuntropical distribution, widely represented in 
the Americas, also occurring in Africa, Australia, Asia and Oceania. The Brazil includes 80 species, of which 
27 are endemic, 50 reported from Bahia and 22 recorded from the Caatinga. The floristic survey of Senna 
in the Ecological Station Raso da Catarina included analysis of specimens collected March 2010 to October 
2011. The analyses were supplemented with dried collections from the following herbaria: ALCB, EAC, 
HRB, HUEFS and MBM. Seven taxa were recorded. The most representative taxa in the area were Senna 
rizzinii 
H.S.Irwin & Barneby and S. acuruensis (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby var. acuruensis. The genus can 
be found in a variety of environments from preserved to degraded areas and in sandy, sandy-clayey or rocky 
soils. The taxonomic treatment includes anidentification key, descriptions, illustrations, photos, data of the 
geographical distribution, reproductive phenology and comments about the taxa.

 

Keywords: Biodiversity, Floristics, Semiarid. 

O gênero Senna Mill. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) em um fragmento da Estação 

Ecológica Raso da Catarina, Bahia, Brasil 

RESUMO. Senna inclui cerca de 300 espécies com distribuição circuntropical, amplamente representada 

nas Américas, ocorrendo ainda na África, Austrália, Ásia e Oceania. O Brasil inclui 80 espécies, dentre estas 
27 são endêmicas, 50 são registradas para Bahia e 22 para Caatinga. O levantamento florístico de Senna na 
Estação Ecológica Raso da Catarina incluiu a análise de espécimes coletados de março de 2010 a outubro de 
2011. As análises foram complementadas com coleções dos seguintes herbários: ALCB, EAC, HRB, 
HUEFS e MBM. Sete táxons foram registrados. Os táxons mais representativos na área foram Senna rizzinii 
H.S.Irwin & Barneby e S. acuruensis (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby var. acuruensis. O gênero pode ser 
encontrado em uma variedade de ambientes de preservados até áreas degradadas e em solos arenosos, 
argilo-arenosos ou rochosos. O tratamento taxonômico inclui uma chave de identificação, descrições, 
ilustrações, fotografias, dados de distribuição geográfica, fenologia reprodutiva e comentários sobre os 
táxons. 

Palavras-chave: Biodiversidade; Florística; Semiárido. 

Introduction 

Senna  was established by Miller (1754), is the 

second largest genus of Cassiinae (Lewis, 2005). It 
was segregated from Cassia s. l. with the recognition 
of three distinct genera: Cassia L (s.s),  Senna and 
Chamaecrista Moench (Irwin & Barneby, 1982). 

The genus has a circumtropical distribution, 

occurring in the Americas, Africa, Australia, Asia and 
Oceania, with about 300 species (Lewis, 2005). In 
Brazil,  Senna is represented by approximately 80 
species of which 27 are endemic and 50 species are 
reported from Bahia (Flora do Brasil 2020 em 
construção), with 22 species recorded from the 
Caatinga (Queiroz, 2009). 

The species of Senna can be identified 

morphologically by the absence of bracteoles on the 
flower pedicel, the presence of claviform to 
pyramidal convex extrafloralnectaries, and cylindrical 
or flat-compressed fruit with inert dehiscence. 

The genus is subdivided into six sections: S. sect. 

Astroites H.S.Irwin & Barneby, S. sect. Chamaefistula 
(Collad.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby, S. sect. Paradictyon 
H.S.Irwin & Barneby, S. sect. Peiranisia (Raf.) 
H.S.Irwin & Barneby, S. sect. Psilorhegma (Vogel) 
H.S.Irwin & Barneby and S. sect. Senna Mill. (Irwin 
& Barneby, 1982). Of these, only the section 
Psilorhegma was recognized as monophyletic; the 
others,  Chamaefistula,  Peiranisia  and  Senna,  were 
paraphyletic  since  Astroites  and Paradictyon appeared 

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grouped in other clades according to molecular 
phylogenetic analysis (Marazzi, Endress, Queiroz, & 

Conti, 2006). Acoording to Irwin and Barneby 

(1982), S. sect. Chamaefistula has greater numbers of 

species, being the most representantive in Caatinga. 

The most comprehensive taxonomic treatments 

for Senna was the review done by Irwin and Barneby 

(1982), who recognized 260 species to the New 

World. In Brazil, work has dealt with reports of new 

occurrences, such as Bortoluzzi, Miotto, and Reis 

(2007) for the flora of southern Brazil, and the 

descriptions of new species such as Araújo and 

Souza (2007) for Tocantins and Irwin and Barneby 

(1985) and Cardoso and Queiroz (2008) for Bahia. 

Among regional work with this genus in Brazil are 

Lewis (1987) for Bahia; Lewis (1995) for Pico das 

Almas (Bahia); Rodrigues, Flores, Miotto, and 

Baptista (2005) for Rio Grande do Sul; Dantas and 

Silva (2013) for Parque Estadual da Serra Dourada 

(Goiás) and Rando, Hervencio, Souza, Giulietti and 

Pirani (2013) for Serra do Cipó (Minas Gerais). 

Studies of floristic surveys for the genus in Brazil 

showed that the number of works remains few, 

especially those with descriptions and identification keys. 

Given the significant representation of the genus 

in the flora of the state of Bahia, and especially in the 

Caatinga, this study aimed to better comprehend the 

diversity of this group in a fragment of Ecological 

Station Raso da Catarina (ESRC), in order to 

contribute to knowledge about the flora of the 

semiarid region of Bahia as well as to support the 

development of the ESRC management plan. 

Material and methods 

The Raso da Catarina Ecoregion comprises 

30.800 km

2

 and is one of the eight Ecoregions 

recognized for the Caatinga and includes units of 

conservation. In the North-south direction it is 

narrow and elongated. In the North, West and East 

it is limited to the southern hinterland depression. 

The northeastern portion has limits with the 

Borborema Plateau and the southern part of the 

Bahia hinterland, in the Zona da Mata. The 

Ecoregion is a basin with soils that are very sandy, 

deep and little fertile. Its relief is very flat, but with 

canyons in the western part (formed by sandstone 

outcrops). The altitudes above sea level vary from 

400 to 600 m in the southern part (Bahia) and from 

350 to 700 m in the northern part (Jatobá basin, 

Pernambuco). In the southern part (Bahia) most of 

the soils are composed of sand (deep, excessively 

drained, acid and very low fertility) and oxisol (deep, 

well drained, acid and low fertility) whereas in the 

northern part (Pernambuco) sands soils prevail. 

There exists little surface water in the region except 

in the areas of the canyons. The predominant 

vegetation is the sandy, bushy Caatinga, very dense 

and less thorny than the Caatinga of crystalline soils 

(Velloso, Sampaio, & Pareyn, 2002). 

The ESRC is one of the protected areas of the 

Raso da Catarina Ecoregion. It is one of the largest 

areas of protected Caatinga and occupies about 

105,282.00 ha., delimited by the coordinates 

09º33’13” to 09º54’30” S and 38º29’20” to 38º44’00” 

W, limited to the North with the Pankararé aldeia, 

to the east with the municipalities of Rodelas and 

Canudos, to the South with the municipality of 

Jeremoabo and West with the municipalities of 

Paulo Afonso and Jeremoabo. The climate of the 

ESRC is semiarid average rainfalls of 500 mm year

-1

 

and annual temperature is approximately 23º C 

(Szabo, Rocha, Tosato, & Barroso, 2007).The soils 

are generally sandy deep and very fertile relief plan 

with sandstone formations and the predominant 

vegetation is the sandy, bushy Caatinga, very dense 

(Velloso, Sampaio, & Pareyn, 2002).The fragment 

studied covers 42.112 ha (Figure 1), wich is 

equivalent to approximately 40% of total area, 

delimited by coordinates 09°39’0.30” to 09°50’98.2” 

S and 38°26’57.5” to 38°29’32.6” W. 

The study was based on fieldwork carried out in 

the period between March 2010 and October 2011, 

besides information complemented by the analysis 

of specimens deposited in the herbaria: ALCB, EAC, 

HRB, HUEFS and MBM, acronyms according to 

Thiers (2017) (continuously updated). The field 

collections and observations were performed during 

random walks exploring most of the study area, 

totaling sixteen excursions. The herborization and 

material processing followed the methodology by 

Fosberg and Sachet (1965) and Mori, Mattos-Silva, 

Lisboa, and Coradin, (1989), where fertile material 

was collected with flowers and/or fruit. 

Observations were made about the distribution of 

the species and the type of soil (Sampaio, 2010). The 

specimens were deposited in the herbarium of the 

Universidade do Estado da Bahia (HUNEB-Paulo 

Afonso Collection) and the duplicates will be sent to 

the main herbaria in the state of Bahia. 

The identifications were made based mainly on 

specialized bibliographies (e.g., Irwin & Barneby, 

1982; Queiroz, 2009), protologues, photos of type 

collections and consulting of the collections in the 

herbaria that were visited. For the taxonomic 

descriptions, the terminologies proposed by Irwin 

and Barneby (1982), Harris and Harris (2001), 

Queiroz (2009), Gonçalves and Lorenzi (2011) were 

adopted. The taxonomic treatment includes an 

identification key of taxa, descriptions, illustrations, 

and data of the geographical distribution and 

reproductive phenology of the species. 

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Figure 1. Location of the fragment studied in the Ecological Station Raso da Catarina (Varjão, Jardim, & Conceição, 2013, modified). 

Results and discussion 

Identification key for the representatives of the genus 
Senna 

1.  Leaves with exactly 4 pairs of leaflets; nectary 

located on the petiole; flowers zygomorphic …... 

….…………….................................... 4. S. occidentalis 

1'. Leaves with 2-20 pairs of leaflets; nectary located 

on the rachis; flowers asymmetric. 

2. Branches viscous; leaves with 18-20 pairs of 

leaflets ………….. 1. S. acuruensis var. acuruensis 

2’. Branches not viscous; leaves with 2-5 pairs of 

leaflets. 

3. Subshrubs until 0.5 m tall; leaves with 3-5 
pairs of leaflets; apex of leaflets rounded to 
widely obtuse; legumes dry. 

4. Leaves with exactly 3 pairs of leaflets; 
legumes arched, 35-123 mm long 
............................................ 3. S. obtusifolia 
4'. Leaves with 3-5 pairs of leaflets; 
legumes erect, simulating one loment, 
13–41 mm long …................ 7. S. uniflora 

3'. Small tree to shrubs until 4 m tall; leaves 
with exactly 2 pairs of leaflets, apex of leaflets 
rounded or acute; legumes fleshy. 

5. Leaflets 13-32 × 6-15 mm; flowers 
c. 4 cm diam………….... 5. S. rizzinii 

5'. Leaflets 16-88 × 8-41 mm; flowers 

6-11 cm diam. 

6. Leaflets semi-succulent, 21-88 × 

9-41 mm, pilose to tomentose, 

midrib excentric; nectary pyramidal; 

flowers c. 6 cm diam. ................... 

...… 2. S. macranthera var. pudibunda 

6'. Leaflets chartaceous, 16-23 × 8-

29 mm, glabrous, midrib median; 

nectary digitiform; flowers c. 11 cm 

diam......... 6. S. splendida var. gloriosa 

 

 

Senna Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4, v. 3. 1754. 

Subshrubs, shrubs or trees. Indumentum 

constituted of trichomes glandular or tector, present 

or absent. Stipules entire, persistent or deciduous, 

oblanceolate to subulate. Leaves alternate, spiral or 

distichous; petiolate or subsessile, presence of 

pulvinus; extrafloral nectaries absent or present, 

convex, sessile or stipitate, located between the pairs 

of leaflets or on the petiole; leaflets 1-many pairs, 

papyraceous to coriaceous, elliptic to oblong, 
lanceolate to obovate, apex acuminate, rounded to 

mucronate, base oblique. Inflorescences axillary or 

terminal, racemose, 2-33-flowered; bracts persistent 

or deciduous; bracteoles absent; flowers zygomorphic 

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or asymmetric; Sepals 5, two smaller and three 
larger; petals 5, yellow or orange base; stamens 7, 

heteromorphic, 4 smaller median, subsessile, fillet 

erect, 2-3 abaxial larger, 2 laterals, fillets curved, 

twice the length of the anthers, 1 central, fillet 

erect, less than anther, 3-4 adaxialstaminodes or or 

absent, anthers dehiscent through apical sutures. 

Legume cylindrical, linear and oblong, plane-

compressed, dehiscent or indehiscent, dehiscence 

inert; seeds seeds oblong, obovate, piriform or 
romboid. 

Senna includes about 300 species circuntropical 

distribution, with center of diversity in the 

Americas, also occurring in Africa, Australia, Asia 

and Oceania (Lewis, 2005). For Caatinga were 

recorded 22 species (Queiroz, 2009). In Ecological 

Station Raso da Catarina were recorded seven taxa 

for the genus (Figure 2). 

 

 

Figure 2. Representatives of the Senna in the ESRC. A. S. macranthera (Collad.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby var. pudibunda (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & 
BarnebyB. S. obtusifolia (L.) H.S.Irwin & BarnebyC. S. occidentalis (L.) Link; D. S. rizzinii H.S.Irwin & Barneby; E. S. splendida (Vogel) 
H.S.Irwin & Barneby var. gloriosa H.S.Irwin & BarnebyF. S. uniflora (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby. (A-F) Photos by Correia, C. L. S. B. 

 

1. 

Senna acuruensis (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby 

var. 

acuruensisMem. New York Bot. Gard. 35: 508. 

1982. Figure 3a-e 

Shrubs erect, branched until 3 m tall; branches 

cylindrical, viscous, straight, epidermis green to 
green-vinaceous on the young branches, brown on 
the old branches. Indumentum hispidulous, 
constituted of trichomes glandular and tector, thin 

and stellate, colourless to whitish or orange, soft, 
rigid, erect, tangles, 0.5–3 mm long, distributed on 
the branches, pulvinus, petioles, stipite of nectary, 
leaflets, inflorescence axis, bracts and pedicels. 
Stipules green to green-vinaceous, filiform, little 
showy, 5–8 × c. 1 mm, caducous. Leaves 3–12.6 cm 
long; pulvinus vinaceous, glandular, c. 2.5 mm 
diam.; petiole 0.9–2.1 mm long, less than the rachis; 

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1–3 extrafloral nectaries, brown, stipitate, digitiform 
to ellipsoid, c. 1.5 mm long, located on the rachis, 
between the proximal pairs to leaflets; rachis 35–125 
mm long; interfoliolar segments 4–8 mm long; 
leaflets discolorous, 18–20 pairs, chartaceous, adaxial 
surface glabrous, abaxial surface pilose, 10–19.5 × 
4–8 mm, oblong to obovate, apex obtuse to truncate, 
mucronate, base oblique, venation penninervous. 
Inflorescences racemose, axillary, 3–9 flowered; 
bracts green to vinaceous, linear, 4–7 × c. 0.5 mm; 
pedicel 5–18 mm long. Buds green to green-
yellowish, globose, 2–9 mm long. Flowers c. 2 cm 
diam., assimetric; sepals green with borders yellow, 
oblong to orbicular, abaxial surface glabrous, 6–10 × 
2.5–10 mm; petals yellow, two external, oblong to 
ovate, 14–17 × 7.5–12 mm, two internal, 
oblanceolate to deltoid, 17–21 × 11–17 mm, 
cuculus falcate, bent around the stamens, 16–21 × 
14–17.5 mm; stamens yellow, 5.5–15 mm long; 
staminoids yellow 4.5–6 mm long; ovary green, 
glabrous, 11–16 mm long; style green to yellowish, 
3–4 mm long; Legumes oblong, curved, when 
young vinaceous, mature brown, dry, plane-
compressed, 43–115 × 7–13 mm; valves 
chartaceous, glabrous. Seeds oblong, vinaceous, 
plane, 3–6 × 2–3 mm. 

Material examined: BRAZIL, BAHIA: Paulo 

Afonso, Estação Ecológica Raso da Catarina, Trilha 
sentido casa abandonada, 9°43’10.04”S and 
38°35’18.23"W, 625 m, 18.V.2010, fl., C.L.S.B. 
Correia et al. 115 (HUNEB); Trilha sentido mata da 
Pororoca, 9°48'32.7" S and 38°29'30.8 W, 584 m, 
01.VII.2010, fl.; fr., C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 164 
(HUNEB); 04.II.2011, C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 381 
(HUNEB); Trilha sentido casa sede vindo da 
estrada principal, 09°39'16.5" S and 38°28'01.0" W, 
621 m, fr., 24.XI.2010, C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 304 
(HUNEB); Trilha sentido casa I do ICMbio após a 
encruzilhada de acesso a Pororoca, 09°44'14.9" S and 
38°40'94.0" W, 585 m, 14.I.2010, fl., C.L.S.B Correia 
et al. 375 (HUNEB); Trilha principal próximo à 
entrada da ESEC, 09°39'0.30" S and 38°26'57.5" W, 
635 m, 04.IV.2011, C.L.S.B Correia et al. 418 
(HUNEB); Trilha sentido casa II do ICMbio vindo 
da Pororoca, 09°49'15.8" S and 38°29'33.6" W, 667 
m, fl., 04.V.2011, C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 459 
(HUNEB). 

Senna acuruensisis a species endemic of Brazil, 

known only from the Northeast Region of Brazil, 
having been recorded in the states of Alagoas, Bahia, 
Pernambuco and Sergipe (Queiroz, 2009; Flora do 

Brasil 2020 em construção). Irwin and Barneby 
(1982) recognized three varieties for the species: S. 
acuruensis  
var.  acuruensis, S. acuruensis var.  catingae 
(Harms) H.S.Irwin & Barneby and S. acuruensis var. 
interjecta H.S.Irwin & Barneby, while reducing Cassia 
catingae 
Harms, to a variety of this species. However, 
research based on molecular data showed that S. 
acuruensis  
could be related to S. multijuga (Marazzi, 
Endress, Queiroz & Conti, 2006; Queiroz 2009). In 
2009, Queiroz did not recognize the circumscription 
proposed by Irwin & Barneby (1982) for the species. 
According to this author, S. acuruensis differs from 
Cassia catingae in the number and dimensions of the 
leaflets and the indumentum, and therefore 
considered it a distinct species. In this study, we 
adopt the circunscription of S. acuruensis proposed 
by Queiroz (2009). In the study area, the species is 
quite common, occurring in the most degraded 
areas, near roadsides, on sandy soil and at altitudes 
below 700 m. It was collected with flowers from 
January to July and in November, and with fruits 
from June to July and in November. 

The species can easily be distinguished from the 

other species of the area by viscous branches, leaves 
with 18–20 pairs of leaflets, 1–3 extra floral nectaries 
localized on the rachis between the proximal pairs to 
leaflets and dry plane-compressed fruits. 

 

2.

 Senna macranthera (Collad.) H.S.Irwin & 

Barneby var. 

pudibunda (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & 

Barneby, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 35 (1): 186. 
1982. Figures 2e; 3f-h 

Shrubs erect, branched until 4 m tall; cylindrical 

branches, straight, epidermis green on the young 
branches, brown on the old branches. Indumentum 
tomentose, constituted of trichomestector, thin, 
whitish, soft, erect and adpressed, uniform, c. 0.5 
mm long, persistent on the old branches, intense on 
the young branches, distributed on the branches, 
stipules, petioles, leaflets, bracts, pedicels, sepals and 
petals. Stipules green, filiform, obsolete, 4.5–6 × 
0.5–1 mm, caducous. Leaves 1.8–7.3 cm long; 
pulvinus green-vinaceous, pilose, c. 3.5 mm diam.; 
petiole 7–23 mm long, smaller than the rachis; 1 
extrafloral nectary, green-vinaceous, sessile, 
pyramidal, 1–3 mm long, located on the rachis, 
between the proximal pair of leaflets; rachis 13–15 
mm long; leaflets discolorous, 2 pairs, semi-
succulent, adaxial surface pilose, abaxial surface 
tomentose, obovate to elliptic, 21–88 × 9–41 mm, 
apex rounded, base assimetric, venation 

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penninervous, midrib excentric. Inflorescences 
racemose, terminal, axillary, 5–14–flowered; bracts 
green, deltoid, 9–14 × 2–3 mm; pedicel 8–24 mm 
long. Buds yellow, ovoid to globular, 3–14 mm long. 
Flowers c. 6 cm de diam., asymmetric; sepals green, 
oblong or orbicular to ovate, abaxial surface pilose, 
7.5–8.5 × 4–6 mm; petals yellow, two external, 
oblong to ovate, 16–31 × 9–26 mm, two internal, 
oblong to obovate, 14–30 × 9–19 mm, cuculus 
orbicular, bent around the androecium and 
gynoecium, 17–25 × 11–20 mm; stamens yellow to 
vinaceous, 8–18 mm long; staminoids yellow, 4–5 
mm long; ovary yellow, setulose, 16–28 mm long; 
style green, 3–5 mm long. Legumes oblong, linear to 
little incurved, when young green to green-
yellowish, past vinaceous to brown, fleshy, 
cylindrical, 38–80 × 2–4 mm; valves immature or 
past, not evidenced. Seeds not seen. 

Material examined: BRAZIL, BAHIA: Paulo 

Afonso, Estação Ecológica Raso da Catarina, Trilha 
da Mata da Pororoca. 09°48'28.1" S and 38°29'30.9" 
W, 699 m, 19.V.2010, fl., M.V.V. Romão et al. 598 
(HUNEB); 01.VII.10. fl.; fr., C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 
170 (HUNEB); 28.V.11, fl., R.R. Varjão et al. 100 
(HUNEB); 08.VI.11, fl.; fr., C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 
466 (HUNEB). 

Senna macranthera was reported from South 

America by Irwin and Barneby (1982). In Brazil 
occurs in the all regions, with wide diversity in the 
Northeast Region (Irwin & Barneby, 1982; Queiroz, 
2009; Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção). 
According to Irwin and Barneby (1982), the species 
includes eight varieties, of which five occur in Bahia 
(Lewis, 1987) and three in the Caatinga (Queiroz, 
2009). Only the variety pudibunda was collected in 
the portion of the ESRC studied; it occurs in the 
Northeast Region of Brazil to northern Minas 
Gerais and only in areas of Caatinga, making this 
variety endemic to this biome (Irwin & Barneby, 
1982). In the study area, the taxon was collected in 
an ecotonal area of humid forest on sandy-clayey 
soil at altitudes of approximately 700 m. Flowers 
were observed from May to July and fruits from 
June to July. 

In the area, the taxon can be recognized by leaves 

with two pairs of semi-succulent leaflets with 
excentric midrib and flowers with c. 6 cm in diam. It 
resembles  S. rizzinii H.S.Irwin & Barneby and S. 
splendida
 (Vog.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby var. gloriosa 
H.S.Irwin & Barneby, by having in common leaves 
with two pairs of leaflets and stipitate extra floral 

nectaries localized on the rachis. However, S. 
macranthera
 var. pudibunda  differs from the first 
species especially in the size of the flowers with c. 6 
cm in diam. (vs. c. 4 in diam.), and size of the leaflets 
21–88 mm long (vs. 13–32 mm long). The taxon can 
be further distinguished from S. splendida var. gloriosa 
by semi-succulent, pilose to tomentose leaflets with 
excentric midrib (vs. cartaceous and glabrous with 
medium midrib) and flowers of c. 6 cm diam. (vs. c. 
11 in diam.) 

 

3. 

Senna obtusifolia (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby, 

Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 35(1): 252. 1982. 
Figures 2b; 4a-d

 

Subshrubs erect, little branched until 0.5 m tall; 

cylindrical branches, straight, epidermis green on 
the young branches, green-vinaceous on the old 
branches. Indumentum pubescent, constituted of 
trichomes glandular and tector, thin, whitish brown 
to black, sessile an flexible, erect and wavy, sparse, 
1–1.5 mm long, caducous on the old parts, 
eventually persistent, discreetly viscose on the young 
branches, distributed on the branches, stipules, 
petioles, margin and midrib with leaflets, bracts, 
sepals, ovary and legumes. Stipules green, filiform, 
showy, 2–12 × c. 0.2 mm, caducous. Leaves 3–10.5 
cm long; pulvinus green, glabrous, c. 1.5 mm diam.; 
petiole 5–31 mm long, smaller than the rachis; 2 
extrafloral nectaries, brown, stipitate, digitiform, 1–2 
mm long, located on the rachis, between the pairs of 
proximal leaflets; rachis 8–25 mm long; interfoliolar 
segments 3–12 mm long; leaflets discolorous, 3 
pairs, chartaceous, adaxial surface villose, abaxial 
surface canescent, 10–60 × 5–30 mm, widely 
obovate, apex rounded, mucronate, base cuneate, 
venation penninervous. Inflorescences racemose, 
axillary, 2–3 flowered; bracts green, filiform to 
lanceolate, 4–10 × 0.5–1.5 mm; pedicel 3–9 mm 
long. Buds green-vinaceous, globular, 3–7 mm long. 
Flowers 0.7–3 cm diam., asymmetric; sepals green, 
abaxial surface pilose, elliptic to ovate or ovate to 
orbicular, 5–12 × 2–9; petals yellow, two external, 
oblong to ovate, 6–7 × 4–6 mm, two internal, 
orbicular, 7–8 × 5–5.5 mm, cuculus bent around 
the androecium, 10–15 × 5–9 mm; stamens 
yellowish to vinaceous, 2.5–5.5 mm long; 
staminoids 0.5–2 mm long; ovary vinaceous, pilose, 
5–12 mm long; style green to vinaceous, 6–11.5 mm 
long. Legumes linear to filiform, arched, when 
young green, mature not seen, dry, plane-
compressed, 35–123 × 1–3.5 mm; valves 
chartaceous, glabrous. Seeds not seen. 

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Figure 3. a-e. Senna acuruensis var. acuruensis: a. flowering branch; b. rachis and nectary; c. leaflet; d. flower; e. fruit. f-h. Senna macranthera 
var. pudibunda: f. flowering branch; g. rachis and nectary; h. flower. a-e. from A. S. Conceição 1713; f-h. from A.S. Conceição 1717. 

 

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364 

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Maringá, v. 39, n. 3, p. 357-372, July-Sept., 2017 

 

Material examined: BRAZIL, BAHIA: Paulo 

Afonso, Estação Ecológica Raso da Catarina, 
Trilha por trás da casa sede do ICMbio, 
09°39.84.2" S and 38°28'0.06" W, 592 m, 
20.VIII.2010, fl.; fr., C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 196 
(HUNEB); Ao lado da casa base do ICMbio, 
09°39.84.2" S and 38°28'0.06" W, 592 m, 
29.V.2011, fl.; fr., R.R. Varjão et al. 98 (HUNEB); 
01.VII.2011, fl.; fr., C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 497 
(HUNEB); Próximo a casa base do ICMbio, 
09°39'16.5" S and 38°28'01.0" W, 585 m, 20. 
VIII.2010, fr., C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 518. 

Senna obtusifolia is an invasive species and has 

been recorded for the Americas (Mexico to 
Argentina), Africa and Asia (Irwin & Barneby, 1982; 
Queiroz, 2009). In Brazil, it is known from all 
regions and is found in the most degraded areas. In 
the study area it was collected in the most humid. 
and degraded areas on sandy-clayey soil at an 
altitude of 592 m, with flowers and fruits from May 
to August. 

This species is characterized by leaves with 

exactly three pairs of leaflets and linear to filiform 
and arched fruits. In the area, S. obtusifolia can be 
confused with S. uniflora (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & 
Barneby, by both being small tall (to 0.5 m) and 
having largely obovate leaflets and extrafloral 
nectaries localized on the rachis. However, the 
species can be easily differentiated from S. uniflora, 
by three pairs of leaflets, arched and glabrous fruits, 
with 3.5–12.3 cm long (vs. five pairs of leaflets and 
erect and pilose fruits, simulating one lomentum, 
with 1.3–4.1 cm long). 

 

4.  S

enna occidentalis (L.) Link,  Handbuch [Link] 

2:140. 1831. Figures 2f; 4e-h 

Subshrubs erect, little branched until 0.8 m tall; 

cylindrical branches, straight, epidermis striated 
longitudinally, green-vinaceous on the young 
branches, purple on the old branches. Indumentum 
pubescent, constituted of trichomes tector, thin, 
colorless, erect, esparse, c. 1 mm long, caducous on 
the old branches, intense on the young branches, 
distributed on the pulvinus, margin with leaflets, 
sepals and legumes. Stipules green, lanceolate to 
deltoid, obsolete, 2.5–4 × 0.5–1 mm, caducous. 
Leaves 5.5–20.5 cm long; pulvinus green, pilose, 2–4 
mm diam.; petiole 33–39 mm long, slightly larger 
with rachis; 1 extrafloral nectary, black, sessile, 
pyramidal, 1–2 mm long, located on the petiole; 
rachis 23–110 mm long; interfoliolar segments 13–

34 mm long; leaflets discolorous, 4 pairs, 
membranaceous, adaxial surface glabrous to sparsely 
pubescent, abaxial surface pilose, lanceolate to 
elliptic, 17–65 × 9–37 mm, apex acute to cuneate, 
base assimetric to cuneate, venation penninervous. 
Inflorescences racemose, subumbeliform, axillary, 
2–5 flowered; bracts green to vinaceous, lanceolate 
to deltoid, 4–6 × 2–4 mm; pedicel 7–28 mm long. 
Buds green-yellowish, globose, 3–9 mm long. 
Flowers c. 2.5 cm diam., zygomorphic; sepals green, 
deltoid to elliptical or obovate to oblong, abaxial 
surface glabrous, 6–9.5 × 3–4.5 mm; petals yellow, 
two external, obovate, 7–9.5 × 4–5.5 mm, two 
internal, oblanceolate, 7.5–9 × 3.5–5 mm, cuculus 
cordate to orbicular, bent around the stamens, 11–13 
× 6–7 mm; stamens yellow, 6–7.5 mm long; 
staminoids yellow, 3–5 mm long; ovary yellow, 
tomentose, 5–8 mm long; style green, 3–4 mm long. 
Legumes oblong, little curved, when young 
vinaceous, mature brown with margins green-
yellowish to yellowish, dry, plane-compressed, 44–
120 × 2–8.5 mm; valves coriaceous, glabrous. Seeds 
oblong, brown to vinaceous green, plane to 
discreetly papillate, 3.5–6 × 1–2 mm. 

Material examined: BRAZIL, BAHIA: Paulo 

Afonso, Estação Ecológica Raso da Catarina, trilha 
principal em frente a casa I do ICMbio, próximo ao 
portão da ESEC, 09°39'0.30” S and 38°26'57.5” W, 
635 m, 29.VI.2010, fl.; fr., C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 128 
(HUNEB); 19. VIII.2010, fl.; fr., C.L.S.B. Correia et 
al. 192 (HUNEB); 04.II.2011, fl.; fr., C.L.S.B. 
Correia et al. 380 (HUNEB); 25.III.2011. fl., 
C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 392 (HUNEB); 04.IV.2011, 
fl.; fr., C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 413 (HUNEB); Trilha 
principal próximo à casa do Sr. Divá, 09°43’12.6”S 
and 38°30’31.2”W, 568 m, 31.VII.2011, fl.; fr., 
C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 532 (HUNEB). 

Senna occidentalis is an invasive species of tropical 

and subtropical America, Africa and Asia (Irwin & 
Barneby 1982; Queiroz 2009). The species is present 
in all of the regions of Brazil, and is found 
predominantly in the most degraded areas (Queiroz, 
2009). In ESRC, the taxon is rare, inhabiting 
degraded areas on sandy-clayey soil at altitudes from 
645–650 m, with the period of flowering and 
fruiting from February to August. 

The species can easily be recognized in the area 

by leaves with 4 pairs of lanceolate to elliptical 
leaflets; petiolar extrafloral nectaries; zygomorphic 
flowers and dry, plane-compressed, little curved 
fruits. 

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Figure 4. a-d. Senna obtusifolia: a. flowering branch; b. rachis and nectary; c. leaflet; d. fruit. e-h. Senna occidentalis: e. fertile branch; f. 
rachis; g. leaflet; h. detail of nectary; a-d. from A. S. Conceição 1861; e-h. from A. S. Conceição 1727. 

 

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5. 

Senna rizzinii H.S.Irwin & Barneby, Mem. New 

York Bot. Gard. 35(1): 174. 1982. Figures 2d; 5a-c

 

Shrubs erect, profusely branched until 4 m tall; 

cylindrical branches, straight, epidermis green on 

the young branches, discreetly estriated at the same 

time and light brown to green- greyish on the old 

branches. Indumentum tomentose, constituted of 

trichomestector, thin, white, flexible, erect and 

adpressed, wavy, excessive, c. 0.5 mm long, 

caducous on the old parts, intense on the young 

branches, distributed on the branches, stipules, 

petioles, rachis, leaflets, inflorescences, bracts, 

pedicels, margin with sepals and abaxial surface with 

the petals. Stipules vinaceous to brown, filiform, 

obsolete, 6–11 × 0.5–1 mm, persistent. Leaves 1.5–

5.5 cm long; pulvinus brown-greyish, pilose, c. 1 

mm diam.; petiole 5–18 mm long, slightly smaller or 

equal to rachis; 1 extrafloral nectary, vinaceous to 

purple, stipitate, pyramidal, located on the rachis 

between the proximal pair of leaflets, 1.5–2.5 mm 

long; rachis 4–8 mm long; leaflets discolorous, 2 

pairs, chartaceous, adaxial surface puberulous, 

abaxial surface villose, ovate to elliptic, 13–32 × 6–
15 mm, apex rounded to acute, base oblique, 

venation penninervous. Inflorescences racemose, 

axillary, 7–15 flowered; bracts green, orbicular to 

obovate, 2–6 × 2–4 mm; pedicel 10–13 mm long. 

Buds green to green-yellowish, ovate to obtuse, 4–

11 mm long. Flowers c. 4 cm diam., assimetric; 

sepals green, deltoid to ovate or ovate to oblong, 

abaxial surface glabrous, 5–11 × 3–6 mm; petals 

yellow with ribs orange, two external, obovate to 

orbicular, 11–19 × 9–12 mm, two internal, 

obelliptic, 15–18 × 8–11 mm, cuculus cordiform to 

orbicular, 14–19 × 14.5–16 mm; stamens yellow, 5–

13 mm long; staminoids, 2–5 mm long; ovary 

yellow, strigose, 8–12  mm long; style light yellow, 8–

12 mm long. Legumes oblong, little curved, when 

young green, mature brown to vinaceous, fleshy, 

cylindrical, 28–74 × 3–20 mm; valves chartaceous, 

cylindrical, when young pilose, mature glabrous. Seeds 

obovate, brown to black, glossy, 6–10 × 3–5 mm. 

Material examined: BRAZIL. BAHIA: Estação 

Ecológica Raso da Catarina, Trilha sentido casa sede, 

09°39'16.5" S and 38°28'01.0" W, 621 m, 01.VII.2010, 

fl., C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 142 (HUNEB); 

18.V.2010, fl.; fr., M.V.V. Romão et al. 572 

(HUNEB); Mata da Pororoca, 09°48'28.1" S and 

38°29'30.9" W, 699 m, 01.VII.2010, fl., C.L.S.B. 

Correia et al. 161 (HUNEB); Trilha principal 

sentido Mata da Pororoca, 09°48'32.7" S and 

38°29'30.8" W, 624 m, 19.V.2010., fl., M.V.V. Romão 

et al. 617 (HUNEB); 25.X.2010, fr., C.L.S.B. 

Correia et al. 224 (HUNEB); 24.XI.2010, fl., 

C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 297 (HUNEB); Trilha por 

trás da casa sede do ICMbio, 09°39'16.5" S and 

38°28'01.0" W, 582 m, 20.VIII.2010, fl.; fr., C.L.S.B. 

Correia et al. 197 (HUNEB); Trilha principal 

depois da Mata da Pororoca, 09°49'02.9"S and 

38°29'50.6"W, 634 m, 25.X.2010, fl.; fr., C.L.S.B. 

Correia et al. 232 (HUNEB); 08.VI.11, fl., C.L.S.B. 

Correia et al. 476 (HUNEB); Trilha sentido casa II 

do ICMbio,09°49'15.8" S and 38°29'33.6" W, 667 m, 

24.XI.2010, fl., C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 277 

(HUNEB); 04.II.11, fl.; fr., C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 

389 (HUNEB); Trilha principal sentido casa I do 

ICMbio, vindo da encruzilhada de acesso a Mata da 

Pororoca, 09°44'14.9" S and 38°40'94.0" W, 632 m, 

14.I.11, fl., C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 377 (HUNEB); 

Trilha sentido casa II do ICMbio, próximo a Baixa do 

Caximbo, 09°49'15.8" S and 38°29'33.6" W, 606 m, 

09.VI.11, fl.; fr., C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 488 (HUNEB); 

09.VI.11, fl.; fr., C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 488 (HUNEB). 

Senna rizzinii occurs only in the Northeast 

Region of Brazil, being widely distributed in all 
states (Irwin & Barneby, 1982; Flora do Brasil 2020 
em construção). The species is most common in the 
Caatinga, occurring on sandy soil at altitudes of 400 
a 900m (Queiroz, 2009). In ESEC, the species is 
very common, occurring in open and degraded areas 
on sandy and sandy-clayey soil at altitudes of 600–
700 m., where is was found with flowers from 
February to May and June to August and with fruits 
in May, August and October. 

In the study area, it can be recognized by exactly 

two pairs of leaflets, cylindrical fleshy fruits of 28–74 
mm long and asymmetric flowers with c. 4 cm in 
diam. Among the species cataloged for ESRC, S. 
rizzinii
 can be confused with S. macranthera var. 
pudibunda, by both having leaves with two pars of 
leaflets and stipitulate extrafloral nectaries localized 
on the rachis, but can be differentiated mainly by the 
size of the flowers and leaflets (see comments for S. 
macranthera 
var. pudibunda). 

 
6. 

Senna splendida (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby var. 

gloriosa  H.S.Irwin & Barneby, Mem. New York 
Bot. Gard. 35(1): 190. 1982. Figures 2e; 5d-h 

Small tree to shrubs erect, branched until 4 m 

tall; cylindrical branches, fractiflex, apex with 
branches young, epidermis striated longitudinally, 
green on the young branches, light brown to 
yellowish on the old branches. Indumentum villose, 
constituted of trichomes glandular and tector, thin, 
colorless and brown, flexible and sessile, erect and 
adpressed, wavy, esparse, c. 1.5 mm long, distributed 
on the branches, pulvinus, petioles, inflorescence 
axis, bracts, pedicels and young legumes. Stipules 
green, linear, obsolet, 4–12 × 0.5–2 mm, caducous. 

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Figure 5. a-c. Senna rizzinii: a. flowering branch; b. rachis and nectary; c. flower; d-h. Senna splendida var. gloriosa: d. flowering branch; e. 
rachis and extrafloral nectary; f. leaflet; g. flower; h. fruit. a-c. from A. S. Conceição et al. 1672; d-h. from A. S. Conceição et al. 1771.

 

 

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Leaves 3.4–10.5 cm long; pulvinus dark green, 

glabrous, 1–1.5 mm diam.; petiole 12–30 mm long, 

c. 2 times than the rachis; 1 extrafloral nectary, dark 

brown, stipitate, digitiform, 2–4 mm long, located 

on the rachis between the proximal pair of leaflets; 

rachis 6–19 mm long; leaflets discolorous, 2 pairs, 

chartaceous, adaxial surface and abaxial surface 

glabrous, elliptic to ovate, 16–23 × 8–29 mm, apex 

acute, base rounded, venation penninervous, midrib 

median. Inflorescences racemose, corimbose to 

umbeliform, axillary, sometimes terminal, 2–10 

flowered; bracts green to vinaceous green, deltoid to 

lanceolate, 5–12 × 1–2 mm; pedicels 10–26 mm 

long. Buds green, globular, 10–16 mm long. Flowers 

c. 11 cm diam., assimetric; sepals green to green-

vinaceous, deltoid to ovate or ovate to elliptic, 

abaxial surface glabrous, 18–36 × 7–18 mm; petals 

golden yellow, two external, ovate, 14–36 × 7–21 

mm, two internal, orbicular, 12–31 × 8–22 mm, 

cuculus obovate to elliptic, bent around the 

androecium, 12–27 × 07–13 mm; stamens light 

yellow, 6–24 mm long; staminoids 3–5 mm long; 

ovary light green, pubescent, 16–33 mm long; style 

light green, 2–5 mm long. Legumes linear, erect to 

slightly curvate, when young green, mature not 

seen, fleshy, cylindrical, 180–255 × 4–7 mm; valves 

young, coriaceous, glabrous. Seed spiriform, brown, 

glossy, 4–6 × 2–3 mm. 

Material examined: BRAZIL. BAHIA: Paulo 

Afonso, Estação Ecológica Raso da Catarina, Trilha 

em frente a casa I do ICMbio, próximo ao portão da 

ESEC, 09°39'0.30" S and 38°26'57.5" W, 635 m, 

19.VII.2010, fl., C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 193 
(HUNEB). 04.II.11, fl., C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 394 

(HUNEB). 04.IV.11, fl., C.L.S.B. Correia et al. 417 

(HUNEB). 01.VII.2011, fl.; fr., C.L.S.B. Correia et 

al. 495 (HUNEB).

 

Senna splendida was reported from South America 

(Brazil and Paraguay) by Irwin and Barneby (1982). 

In Brazil, it has been recorded for the state of Piauí 

to Paraná (Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção). 

Two varieties are recognized for the species: S. 

splendida  (Vog.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby var. splendida 

and  S. splendida (Vog.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby var. 

gloriosa H.S.Irwin & Barneby, both recorded for the 

Caatinga (Irwin & Barneby, 1982; Queiroz, 2009). 

Senna splendida var. gloriosa  occurs between states of 

Alagoas and Minas Gerais, in areas of Caatinga and 

Cerrado (Queiroz, 2009; Flora do Brasil 2020 em 

construção). In the study area only the variety gloriosa 

was collected, which was reported by Irwin and 

Barneby (1982) for the Northeast Region of Brazil 

to northern Minas Gerais. The taxon was 

uncommon in ESRC, collected in degraded areas on 

clayey soil at the altitude of 590 m. It was collected 

with flowers in February, April and August and 

fruits in April, June and August. 

Senna splendida var. gloriosa,  can be easily 

identified in the study area by glabrous leaves with 

two pairs of leaflets, flowers of c. 11 cm in diam. and 

cylindrical fleshy fruits with 180–255 long. The 

species resembles S. macranthera var.  pudibunda  by 

both sharing leaves with two pairs of leaflets and 

stipitulate extrafloral nectaries localized on the 

rachis, but differs by consistency, indument and 

position of the midrib of the leaflets and size of the 

flowers (as mentioned in S. macranthera var. 

pudibunda). 

 
7

. Senna uniflora (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby, 

Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 35(1): 258. 1982. 

Figures 2c; 6a-d 

Subshrubs erect, not branched, until 0.4 m tall; 

cylindrical branches, straight, epidermis green-

yellowish on the young branches, little striated 

longitudinally and vinaceous on the old branches. 

Indumentum sericeous, constituted of trichomes 

tector, thin, light brown to white, flexible, erect and 
adpressed, intense, c. 2.5 mm long, distributed on 

the branches, pulvinus, petioles, stipules, margin 

with leaflets, bracts, pedicels and sepals. Stipules 

green, filiform, showy, 9–15 × c. 0.5 mm long, 

caducous. Leaves 2.2–11.4 cm long; pulvinus 

yellowish to vinaceous, pilose, c. 2 mm diam.; 

petiole 6–15 mm long, smaller with the rachis; 2-3 

extrafloral nectaries, yellow to vinaceous, stipitate, 

digitiform, 2–4.5 mm long, located on the rachis 

between the proximal pair with leaflets; rachis 5–28 

mm long; interfoliolar segments 4–11 mm long; 

leaflets discolorous, 3–5 pairs, chartaceous, adaxial 

surface sparsely pilose, abaxial surface rufous-setose, 

widely obovate, 9–35 × 4–21 mm, apex rounded to 

widely obtuse, mucronate, base cuneate, venation 

penninervous. Inflorescences racemose, axillary, 2–7 

flowered; bracts green-vinaceous, filiform, 7–15 × 

0.5–1 mm. Buds yellow to yellowish green, ovate, 

2.5–5 mm long. Flowers c. 1 cm diam., asymmetric; 

pedicel 2–5 mm long; sepals green, oblanceolate to 

falcate or ovate, abaxial surface pilose, 3–6 × 2.5–5 

mm; petals yellow, two internal and two external, 

obovate 4.5–6 x 1,5–3 mm long, cuculus oblong, 

bent around the androecium, 5.5–7 × 5–6 mm long; 

10 stamens yellow 2–5 mm long; without 

staminoids; ovary yellow to white, panose, 4–9 mm 

long; style yellow, 2–3 mm long. Legumes linear, 

erect, when young green, mature vinaceous green, 

dry, plane-compressed, 13–41 × 2–4 mm; valves 

chartaceous, simulating one loment, pubescent to 

rufous-setose. Seeds romboid, green to green 
glaucous, plane, 2–4 × 1.5–2 mm. 

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Figure 6. a-d. Senna uniflora: a. fertile branch; b. detail of nectary and indumentum; c. leaflet; d. fruit. a-d. from A. S. Conceição 1356. 

 

Material examined: BRAZIL, BAHIA: Paulo 

Afonso, Estação Ecológica Raso da Catarina, trilha 

sentido casa sede do ICMbio, 09°39’84.2" S and 

38°28'0.06" W, 621 m, 1.VII.2010, fl.; fr., C.L.S.B. 

Correia et al. 141 (HUNEB). 

Senna uniflora was reported from the Americas 

(from Mexico to south America) by Irwin and 

Barneby (1982). In Brazil, the species is recorded for 

the North, Northeast, Center-West and Southeast 

Regions (Irwin & Barneby, 1982; Queiroz, 2009; 

Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção). In the study 

area, the species is uncommon, occurs in degraded 

areas on sandy-clayey soil, and was collected in July 

with flower and fruit. 

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The leaves have 3–5 pairs with widely obovate 

leaflets, pilose to rufous-setose; dry, plane-

compressed fruits, simulating one loment, with 13–

41 mm long, distinguishing it from the other species 

occurring in the area. Senna uniflora can be confused 

with  S. obtusifolia, by both being small tall, and 

widely obovate leaflets, and nectaries located on the 

rachis. However, the two species can be 

differentiated by number of pairs of leaflets and 

form and indumentum of the fruit (see comments 

in S. obtusifolia). 

Conclusion 

Seven taxa of the genus Senna were recorded in 

ESRC, equivalent to 31.8% of taxa registered from 

the Caatinga. Among these, two mainly occur in 

Caatinga environments. The studied taxa can be 

found in a variety of environments from preserved 

to degraded areas and in sandy, sandy-clayey or 

rocky soils. The most representative taxa in the area 

were  Senna rizzinii H.S.Irwin & Barneby and S. 

acuruensis (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby, occurring 

principally in open and degraded areas on sandy and 

sandy-clayey soil at altitudes of 600–700 m. 

Acknowledgements 

Thanks to the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do 

Estado da Bahia (FAPESB, PET #0023 /2007) and to 
the  Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e 
Tecnológico
 (CNPq Proc. #552589/2011-0) for 
financial support. To Instituto Chico Mendes 
(ICMBio) for their support during field work. To 
anonymous reviewer by improvements. The first 
author thanks the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de 
Pessoal de Nível Superior
 (CAPES) by scholarship, the 
curators and technicians of the herbaria that were 
visited for their readiness during the consultation of 
the collections and Carla de Lima for the botanical 
illustrations. 

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Received on July 23, 2016. 

Accepted on May 15, 2017. 

 

 

License information: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the 
Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, 
and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 

 

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APPENDIX 

 

LIST OF ADDITIONAL MATERIAL EXAMINED 

 

Bandeira, I. P.:119 (4); 207 (4); Bastos, C. A.:467 (3); Bautista, H. P.: 473 (1); 1035 (7);Bohrer, C. B. A.
18 (2); 

Cardoso, D.: 32 (6); 72 (2);120 (1); 165 (2); Carneiro, A. S.:12 (3);Carvalho,A. M.:3864 (1); 3869 

(4);

 Colaço, M.:63 (1); 178 (6); Conceição, A. A.: 3029 (1); Conceição, A. S.:1036 (2); 1065 (6); 1356 (7); 

1639 (6); 1643 (5); 1672 (5); 1708 (5); 1713 (1); 1717 (2); 1726 (2); 1727 (4); 1741(3); 1750 (5); 1754 (6); 

1758(3); 1771 (6); 1789 (5);1821 (6);1850 (6); 1861(3); 

Correia, C. L. S. B.:96 (5); 97 (2); Costa, A. L.:s/n 

(3); 

Ferreira, M. C.: 21 (2);389 (3);391 (4);612 (5); Figueroa, L. E.: s/n (2); França, F.: 1741 (3);5611 (1); 

Giulietti, A. M.:2453 (7); Guedes, M. L.: 106 (3);4873 (2); 5322 (2); 10495 (2); 11477 (5); 16008 (2); 

Jardim, J. G.:3201 (7); Harley, R. M.:2940 (6); Hatschbach, G.:44155 (6); Leal, S.:24 (5); Mariano, K. R. 

S.:15 (6); Melo, E.: 6297 (3); Melo, T. M. S.: 03 (5); 60 (6); 86 (3); 89 (6); 92 (1); 94 (4); Miranda, A. 

M.:817 (5); Moreira, T.:5 (1); Neto, J. V.:1(4);Noblick, L. R. & Britto, I. C.:3431 (6); Nunes, T. S.:106 
(3); 378 (3); 559 (6); 912 (3);

Paraguassu, L.: 30192 (4); Paschoaletti, L. F. G.:6 (6); Pedra do cavalo, 

G.:203 (3); Pereira, A. C.: 35 (1); Pinto, G. C. P.:14481 (7); Queiroz, L. P. & Nascimento, J. G. A.:4633 
(5); 

Queiroz, L. P. & Sena, T. S. N.:3104 (5); Queiroz, L. P.: 460 (5); 625 (2); 2854 (4); 3721 (5); 3724 (1); 

4643 (1); 5487 (7); 7163(5); 7167 (1); 7168 (1); 7277 (2);9019 (7); 9198 (1); 

Ribeiro-filho, A. A. 129 (2); 

Romão,M. V. V.:62 (5); 524 (5). 549 (1);Santos,R. M.:s/n (1); Sessegolo, G. C.: 48 (2); 175 (4); 248 (2); 

Sobrinho, J. G.: 526 (1); Souza, E. B.:1349 (3); Thomas, W.: s/n. (2); Vieira,D. D.: 19 (6); 51 (2); 54 (1); 
60 (5); 

Virgens, L. P.:5 (4). 

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